Diabetic Neuropathy : Types, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment & Medicines
Diabetic neuropathy is damage of nervous system because of prolonged high glucose level in blood. High glucose level can injure nerve fibers throughout your body, but diabetic neuropathy most usually damages nerves in your legs and feet. For some people, the symptoms of diabetic neuropathy are mild. But diabetic neuropathy can be painful, disabling and even fatal.
Although diabetic neuropathy is a common serious complication of diabetes, it can be prevented slow its progress with controlled blood sugar and a healthy lifestyle.
There are mainly four types of diabetic neuropathy. You may have just one type or symptoms of several types. The signs and symptoms of diabetic neuropathy vary, depending on the type of neuropathy and which nerves are affected.
Peripheral neuropathy is the most common form of diabetic neuropathy in which Your feet and legs are often affected first, followed by your hands, arms,abdomen, and back.
Autonomic neuropathy can affect your heart, bladder, lungs, stomach, intestines, sex organs and eyes.
Radiculoplexus neuropathy also called as diabetic amyotrophy can affects nerves in the thighs, hips, buttocks or legs. This is more common in people with type 2 diabetes and adults.
Sudden and severe pain in your hip and thigh or buttock
Weak and atrophied thigh muscles
Difficulty rising from a sitting position
Mononeuropathy also called as focal neuropathy can affect your face, torso or leg when a specific nerve is damaged.This is more common in adults and the symptoms usually diminish and disappear on their own over time.
Prolonged uncontrolled blood suger can damage delicate nerve fibers, causing diabetic neuropathy.High blood sugar interferes with the ability of the nerves to transmit signals. It also weakens the walls of the small blood vessels which supply oxygen and nutrients to the nerve.
Diabetic neuropathy cannot be cured but can be managed by keeping blood glucose levels under good control through a combination of diet and medication so that the neuropathy does not worsen some antidepressants for example, duloxetine (Cymbalta)and antiseizure such as gabapentin (Neurontin), carbamazepine (Tegretol), and pregabalin (Lyrica) can be effective in relieving pain that originates in the nerves.
In severe cases, opioid analgesic medications may be needed. Capsaicin cream is a topical agent that helps relieve nerve pain. Antispasmodic or anticholinergic drugs can help prevent urinary incontinence. Drugs to treat erectile dysfunction like sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis), and vardenafil (Levitra) may help some men with ED due to diabetic neuropathy. For women, vaginal estrogen creams and lubricants may provide relief of vaginal dryness and irritation. Botulinum toxin (Botox) injections have been used to treat abnormal sweating